Tourist Visa (L) Issued to aliens who are going to China for tourism, family visiting or other private affairs.
Business Visa (F) Issued to aliens who are invited to China for a business visit, an investigation, a lecture, scientific-technological&cultural exchanges, short-term furthering studies or intern practice less than six months.
Student Visa (X) Issued to aliens who are going to China for study, furthering studies or intern practice longer than six months.
Work Visa (Z) Issued to aliens who are going to China for a post or employment, and to their accompanying family members.
Transit Visa (G) Issued to aliens who are going to a third country in transit of China.
Crew Visa (C) Issued to crew members involving international-based transportation by trains, airway and ships and their accompanying family members.
If you are staying in a hotel, guest house or hostel, the staff will check your passport and do the registration for you. If you are staying in a private residence you are required to register your abode with the local police within 24 (city) to 72 (countryside) hours of arrival.
The police will ask for
A copy of the photograph of your current passport
A copy of your visa
A copy of your immigration entry stamp
A photograph of you
A copy of the tenancy agreement or other document concerning the place you are staying in. That agreement might not be in your name but it will still be asked for.